Lamar County W. P. A. History
The highest point of elevation in Lamar County is at
Baxterville in the western part of the county, 404 feet.
The lowest point of elevation in the county is at Okohola
on Black Creek in the eastern part of the county, 232 feet.
In most cases the bottom lands along the small drainage
ways have a width of 50 to 100 yards and are poorly drained and
swampy; there are some swampy areas along the larger streams but
of small extent.
There are no prairie lands or flat wood regions in Lamar
In the western part of Lamar County is a very rugged or
hilly section known as the "Devil's Backbone". This extends into
Lamar County has no rivers within its boundry but it
occupies the divide between the Pearl River on the west and Leaf
River on the east.
The county as a whole has a well established natural
drainage system in three main creeks and their tributaries. These
are Black Creek, Little Black Creek and Red Creek.
BLACK CREEK rises in the north west part of the county
and flows southeastward through the county in its confluence,
toward Dead Lake in Jackson County into which its waters flow.
LITTLE BLACK flows from the source of its origin from the
foothills near Baxterville southeastward through the county
toward its converging point with Big Black, south of Camp Danzler
in Forrest County. RED CREEK flows from the spring heads of the
Rayborn Hills in the central eastward part of the county (to the)
southeastward part of Lumberton, merging its waters with the
aforesaid old lake in Jackson County, and thence into the fabled
waters of the Pascagoula River. By what names these streams were
identified by the Indians we do not know. Their waters are tinted
by soil erosion and vegetable extracts, hence they are all named
from the tint of their waters. We have no other record of the
origin of their names.
Tributaries of Black Creek are Monroe, Parker, and
Perkins Creeks. Their names originated from the first settlers on
these creeks and were so handed down through generations. Sandy
Run is named for its sandy bed. Little Black is named for the
color of its water. Two other creeks in the extreme northern part
of the county are Tick Creek, so named because it is infested
with these insects, and Big Creek, supposedly named in comparison
to other adjacent creeks. Tributaries of Little Black Creek are
Boggy Hollow, so called from the miry nature of its soil and cows
would bog easily when they would go there to drink water; and
Little Beaver Creek, so called for the many beavers that
inhabited it once. Dry Branch just south of Lumberton is a
tributary of Red Creek, so called because it never runs dry. It
is a very swift stream and drains so well the southern section of
the county and the Bass Pecan Nursery. In the north western part
of the county is Upper Little Creek and its tributaries are
Herron Creek and Polk Creek, named for the first settlers. In the
western part is Lower Little Creek and its tributaries are Gully,
Beaver Dam, Hurricane Bay, Half Moon, Burnt Reed Brake, Spice
Pond Creek and Grantham Creek. In the southwestern part are White
Oak, Middle Fork, Dry and Clear Creeks.
Black Creek flows in a southeasterly direction, Little
Black in an easterly direction and Red Creek in a southeasterly
direction. All three ultimately flow into the Pascagoula River.
Big Creek and Tick Creek in the northern part of the county flow
in a northeastern direction into Bowie River. In the north
western and western parts of the county Upper and Lower Little
Creeks with their tributaries flow westward into Pearl River. In
the southwestern part of the county White Oak, Middle Fork, Dry
Creek and Clear Creek flow westward into Pearl River.
This network of streams and their tributaries afford an
excellent drainage system for the entire county, which gives a
good health record and a salubrious climate. The County Health
Officer, Dr. Mason, attributes the excellent health record of the
county to its drainage which prevents stagnant waters and miasmic
ponds, the presence of which is detrimental to the health of the
people. The drainage and rain fall also carries disease breeding
debris away where it is less harmful.
In some places drainage is excessive; this necessitates
terracing to hold the soil.
The principal tributaries of these streams within the
boundry of Lamar County are: Big Black Creek, Carter Creek,
Turkey Creek, Monroe Creek, Parker Creek Perkins Creek, Boar Bay,
Mill Creek, Sandy Run, Mixon Creek and Black Tom. Little Black,
Boggy Hollow, Beaver Dam and Spring Branch. Red River, Dry Branch
and Carters Creek.
The above mentioned streams and their tributaries afford
an excellent drainage system for the entire county. Dr. J. N.
Mason, County Health Officer, attributes the excellent health
record of the county to its drainage which prevents stagnant
water and miamic ponds. In some places the drainage is excessive,
this necessitates terracing to hold the soil.
LAKES, MARSHES, AND BAYOUS
There are no lakes, marshes or bayous in Lamar County to
affect health conditions in any way.
SPRINGS, WELLS AND MINERAL WATERS
Throughout the county are numerous small springs which
supply a constant flow of waters to the smaller streams. Other
than these we have only one spring of note, Sawed Horn Spring in
the southeastern part of the county, so named for Sam Slade who
was first to homestead the land on which the spring is situated.
Mr. Slade was wounded in a rather peculiar manner at the Battle
of Shiloh by being struck with a spent minie ball. The bullet
struck the nose causing a deformity which made one think of a
sawed horn steer; thus the spring derived its name.
Artesian water has been found at Sumrall, a little city
on the Mississippi Central Railroad and at Lumberton at the
Junction on the New Orleans and Northeastern Railroad.
Almost every farm house has a shallow well either bored
or dug which supplies the family with necessary water.
There are no overflowing artesian wells in the county,
but in each town of note there is a deep water well with water
running nearly to the surface which requires pumping to force it
There are no mineral waters in Lamar County.
1. Metallic Minerals
a. Iron - none
1. Bessemer ores - none
2. Non-Bessemer ores - none
b. Aluminum - none
1. kind of ore - none
2. Non Metallic Minerals
a. Cement resources - none
b. Lignite - none
c. Clays, kinds - none
d. Special clays - none
e. Bentonite - none
f. Other minerals (1 )Silicon (2) Ochres - none
g. Sands, for glass manufacture and pottery - none
h. Mineral Waters - none
Reports that anhydrite has been penetrated in a well
being drilled for oil in Lamar County, ten miles from Purvis, by
the Sun Oil Company were received by Dr. W. G. Morse, director of
the State Geological Survey of University, Mississippi.
"Outside of the actual finding of oil or encountering of
oil salt in a well, the discovery of anhydrite is the most
important discovery made in the search for gas and oil in the
state", he said.
A rock salt dome was encountered Saturday in the Sun Oil
Company's deep test well in Lamar County at a depth of slightly
more than 2,400 feet.
The salt strata, the first ever discovered in a
Mississippi test well, showed up underneath more than 800 feet of
anhydrite, an anhydrous sulphate formation of granite-like
August 14. Sunwell, Mississippi--Salt water and mud came
up in another drill stem test completed at midnight in the Sun
Oil Company's Tally number three well in Lamar county.
The test was made yesterday after about two feet of oil
sand had been encountered Thursday night in a core which was out
in the black shale formation.
The first oil sand, saturated with asphalt, was found at
5,643 feet. The same formation lasted for 152 feet after which
came white sand and then black shale.
The asphalt formation found was gummy in character and
jet black in color. A Schlumberger Survey was made in the Sun Oil
Company's Tally three well in Lamar County. Results of the survey
were not divulged. For five or six hours work the company charged
Sunwell, Mississippi August 16 The Sun Oil Company's
Tally number three well was below 6,000 feet today after a
weekend spent in coring and reaming. Reaming continued today.
The formation was described as a brownish black shale.
The depth of the hole was reported at 6,028 feet. Experts are
frank to say that they are puzzled by the strangeness of the log
on this hole in which asphaltic oil, sand, anhydrite, salt water,
black shale and other formations have been encountered.
It is probable that the well will be drilled to 10,000
feet or deeper unless producing sand is discovered at some higher
A new well is to be drilled a mile and a half from Purvis
operations starting no later than September 1. (Ref. Hattiesburg
OIL AND GAS
No oil or gas has been found in Lamar County but two
wells have been drilled about two miles from Purvis. With
complications setting in the wells have had to be abandoned.
There is a well under construction now near Victory. The people
of Lamar County believe that oil and gas will be found.
Let us give as much credit as we can to the original
thinkers of the past and present administration in that they have
discovered for themselves the urgent need of soil conservation.
Farmers by the thousand have had their minds upon the
subject of soil recovery and maintenance for a century or less.
The Agricultural colleges and experiment station have done
praiseworthy work on this subject.
Soil is a mixture of rock particles and organic matter
capable of supporting plant life. The formation of soil is
classed as physical or chemical.
Lamar County lies within the Gulf Coastal plain province
and in the Long Leaf Pine region of Mississippi, locally called
the "Piney Woods" country.
The upland soils of the county are derived from two main
classes of coastal plain materials; (1) beds of sandy clay, and
(2) beds of heavy clay.
There are in Lamar County 20 different types, exclusive
Ruston fine sandy loam is a grayish soil type, to slight
brownish-gray on the surface with a subsoil of either a dull-red
or yellowish-red fine sandy clay with moderately friable subsoil.
The surface is undulating to rolling and the drainage is good. It
is the most extensive soil type in the county.
Orangeburg fine sandy loam is a grayish brown to brown
surface with subsoil of red fine sandy clay, the subsoil being
friable. The surface in general is hilly or broken, with some
small, gently rolling areas. The drainage of both the surface and
underground is good.
Susquehanna fine sandy loam is grayish on the surface
with a subsoil of either yellow clay or red clay. (impervious
subsoil, plastic heavy subsoil). The surface is rolling to gently
sloping or comparatively smooth. Owing to the subsoil under
drainage is imperfect, but where the type is rolling the surface
is usually good.
Norfolk fine sandy loam has a gray surface with a subsoil
of yellow fine sandy clay. The subsoil is friable. The surface is
flat to gently undulating. Most of it has good drainage.
Thompson fine sandy loam has a grayish surface with a
subsoil of yellow fine sandy clay. The subsoil is friable. The
surface is level and flat, interrupted by occasional slight
depressions. The drainage is not very good.
Kalmia fine sandy loam has a gray to dark gray surface.
The surface is level but in low lying areas there are depressions
and the level surface is somewhat interrupted. These depressions
are poorly drained but the drainage of the rest is fairly good.
Bibb fine sandy loam has a gray surface of light gray or
bluish gray. The subsoil is level except for occasional slight
depressions and a few swells and hubbocks. It has poor drainage.
Cahoba fine sandy loam has a brown to light brown surface
with a subsoil of reddish yellow fine sandy clay. This subsoil is
friable. The surface is smooth to gently sloping toward the
streams. Both surface drainage and under drainage are generally
Caddo fine sandy loam has a gray to brown gray surface
and a subsoil of fine yellow sandy clay. This subsoil is plastic
sandy clay. The Caddo occupies level to flat areas and on slopes
drainage is imperfect.
Ruston sandy loam has a gray, brownish gray or light
brown surface. The subsoil is a reddish yellow to yellowish red
sandy clay. The subsoil is friable. The surface is gently rolling
and undulating. Both the surface and the subsoil drainage are
Orangeburg sandy loam has a grayish brown to brownish
surface with a subsoil of red sandy clay. The subsoil is friable.
The surface is hilly and broken. The drainage in most places is
Susquehanna silt loam has a grayish brown to light
brownish surface with a subsoil of mottled red, yellow and gray
clay. The subsoil is plastic. The surface is gently sloping to
undulating with the areas low lying. Both surface drainage and
under drainage is imperfect.
Plummer silt loam has a bluish gray and brownish surface
with a subsoil of gray to bluish gray and pale yellow clay. The
subsoil is silty. This series occurs on low flats and slopes. The
drainage is poor.
Myatt silt loam is light gray on the surface with a
subsoil of mottled yellow and gray clay. The subsoil is silty.
The surface is flat or nearly level. The drainage of both surface
and underground is imperfect.
Kalmia loam is gray to brownish gray on the surface with
a subsoil of pale yellow loam underlain by a pale yellow sandy
clay to silty clay. It is somewhat plastic. The surface is
generally flat, the drainage poor.
Norfolk loam is gray to light grayish brown on the
surface. The subsoil is yellow and with some gray fine sandy
clay. The subsoil is friable. The surface is flat to gently
undulating. The drainage is fairly good.
Caddo loam has a brownish gray to gray or light brown
surface with a subsoil of yellow or pale yellow fine sandy clay.
The subsoil is friable. The surface is flat to gently undulating
areas, the drainage poor.
Ruston fine sand has a gray to brownish gray surface. The
subsoil is light gray or yellowish gray sand. The subsoil is
loose and fine. The surface is hummocky with occasional short
steep slopes facing in a southerly direction. The drainage is
good to excessive.
Ruston gravelly sandy loam has a grayish surface. The
subsoil is reddish yellow to dull red. The subsoil is plastic
clay. This soil is found on slopes, knolls and sharp ridges. The
drainage is good.
Susquehenna clay has a gray surface with a subsoil of red
mottled gray and yellow clay. The subsoil is heavy plastic clay.
This type represents eroded areas of Susquehanna fine sandy loam
and Susquehanna silt loam, the drainage is perfect.
The classification swamp includes low first bottoms which
are continually wet, it consists of a mingling of various soil
There are eleven soil series in Lamar County; the Ruston,
Norfolk, Orangeburg, Susquehanna, Plummer and Caddo are upland
series soils. The alluvial soils of the county are grouped in
five series. There are two divisions - terrace soils, the Kalmia,
Myatt and Cahaba soil and the first bottom soils: the Thompson
and Bibb soils. The upland soils are residual in origin and the
races and first bottom soils consist of alluvium deposited during
Seventy five percent of all cultivable crop land in Lamar
County is the Ruston fine sandy loam and the Ruston sandy loam.
These types grow all crops in Lamar County, especially truck
farming. It is good for grazing on open range but makes only fair
permanent pasture. It is excellent for growing long leaf yellow
pine. The Ruston has fine sand, no value as to crop growing or
grazing and the only timber that will grow on it is oak. The
Ruston gravelly sandy loam is poor for crop raising and grazing.
It is excellent for building material. The Norfolk fine sandy
loam and Norfolk loam is about five percent. The Orangeburg fine
sandy loam is about fifteen percent. It is excellent for grazing
and growing timber.
The Susquehanna consists of one to three percent in gray
silt loam. The Kalmia, Caddo, Cahaba, Thompson and Bibb are fine
sandy loam made up of five percent of the crop land under
cultivation. They are good for grazing. The Susquehanna clay and
Susquehanna silt loam have no value to crops, are very good for
grazing. The Kalmia loam has very little value, also the Myatt